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FOUNDATIONS & CLINICAL APPLICATIONS (5th
ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Print ISBN: 9780323074568

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test bank for GRODNER (2012). NUTRITIONAL
FOUNDATIONS & CLINICAL APPLICATIONS (5th
ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Print ISBN: 9780323074568

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Free Test Chapter Sample:

Chapter 02: Personal and Community Nutrition
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The type of influence that a desire for sweet and salty flavored foods has on food preferences is
a. genetic.
b. learned.
c. physiologic.
d. environmental.

ANS: A
A preference for sweet and salty foods is genetically determined. Environmental effects are the same as learned effects, preferences caused by cultural and socioeconomic influences. Physiology has relatively little influence on food preferences.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 21
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

2. A teenage client is hungry and goes to the refrigerator for a snack. A holiday has just been celebrated at her home, and many of her favorite foods are available. She selects some slices of roast turkey and a cup of her aunt’s special fruit salad. This is an example of
a. bingeing.
b. abundance.
c. food choice.
d. food preference.

ANS: D
This teenager is able to select foods according to her preferences. Food choices are restricted by convenience, but many of her favorite foods are available so her choices are not limited. The food is abundant, and she may choose to binge and overeat, but her selections are made according to her food preference.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 21
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial integrity

3. A mother tells you that she does not allow her young children to eat while the watch television, even though her husband often eats high-fat, sugary foods while they watch television as a family. The most important thing to discuss with her is
a. the genetic factor of preference for sweet and salty tastes.
b. the influence of ethnicity on preference for sour tastes.
c. the children’s weights when they were born and their weights now.
d. the environmental effects of parental food choices and television watching.

ANS: D
Because young children spend so much time with their families, their parents’ food choices have a major impact on their own future food choices. Preventing young children from eating while watching television will have only short-term impact and they are likely to join their father in eating high-fat, high-sugar snacks. The father’s food preferences are probably influenced by genetics and ethnicity and it may be interesting to find out if the children currently have a healthy weight for their height (although there birth weight is probably not relevant), but these have less immediate impact on the nutritional health of this family.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 21
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial integrity

4. Economics is a significant factor influencing the nutritional status of communities. To overcome economic disadvantage, public health efforts include
a. the MyPyramid food guidance system.
b. educational programs on food safety.
c. the U.S. government’s Food Stamp Program.
d. public service announcements on healthy eating.

ANS: C
The Food Stamp Program provides coupons to buy nutritious foods for individuals and families with incomes below certain levels. This can help improve the nutritional status of economically challenged families. The other public health efforts listed are not specifically aimed at people who have an economic disadvantage.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 21
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

5. Between 1970 and 2000, nutritional concern centered on reducing nutrient excesses. Before 1970, the focus was to reduce
a. consumption of lipids.
b. low-carbohydrate diets.
c. nutrient deficiencies.
d. prevention of infectious disease.

ANS: C
Before 1970, most nutritional problems were attributed to nutrient deficiency. Later on, research showed the association between excessive lipid intakes and chronic disease. Low-carbohydrate diets gained popularity for weight loss after 1970. Prevention of infectious disease is not a direct nutritional concern.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: pp. 21-22
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

6. If he is genetically susceptible, an older man who has eaten a high-fat, high-salt diet all his life has a high risk of developing
a. genetic disorders, hypertension, and diabetes.
b. hypertension and sickle cell anemia.
c. viral infections requiring antibiotics.
d. coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes.

ANS: D
Coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes are all more common in individuals who consume high-fat, high-sodium diets. Risk of genetic disorders, sickle cell anemia, and viral infections is not affected by dietary fat and sodium intakes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 22
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

7. Of the following, the most important overall dietary modification to help reduce risk of chronic disease is
a. eating fewer foods that contain preservatives.
b. buying mostly locally grown foods.
c. eating more plant-based foods.
d. eating more animal-based foods.

ANS: C
Scientific evidence from the nutrition evidence library shows that shifting to a more plant-based diet is one of four significant modifications to our dietary intake patterns that will improve the overall health of Americans. Preservatives per se have not been associated with health status (although foods that contain preservatives may be more highly processed and may be higher in fat, sugar, and sodium and lower in nutrients than foods without preservatives). Buying locally grown foods may be a good agricultural and economic practice, but does not affect health status. Eating more animal-based foods would be the opposite of what is recommended.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 23
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

8. One way to help clients follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to encourage them to use
a. Healthy People 2020.
b. MyPyramid.
c. The Food Stamp Program.
d. The Exchange Lists for Meal Planning.

ANS: B
MyPyramid is designed to help clients implement the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthy People 2020 sets national targets for health promotion. The Food Stamp Program provides coupons to buy nutritious foods for individuals and families with low incomes. The Exchange Lists for Meal Planning are intended primarily for patients with diabetes and those who need to lose weight; they help patients choose appropriate portion sizes to control their intake of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and energy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 24-29
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

9. The MyPyramid food guidance system is a
a. food guide intended to increase intake of fruits and vegetables.
b. nutrient guide that categorizes foods by their fat, sodium, and fiber content.
c. food guide that helps consumers meet their nutrient needs and limit dietary excesses.
d. nutrient guide aimed to promote weight loss by controlling intake of fat-soluble vitamins.

ANS: C
The MyPyramid food guidance system helps consumers include foods that meet their nutrient needs and limit intake of dietary components that are often eaten in excess. For many consumers, following MyPyramid will increase their intake of fruits and vegetables, but this is only one part of the recommendations. MyPyramid groups foods according to their nutrient content, but not fat, sodium, and fiber specifically. Intake of fat-soluble vitamins has no effect on weight loss.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 24-25
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

10. The “fruits & veggies—more matters” slogan is part of a campaign designed to increase intake of fruits and vegetables among
a. school-age children.
b. people living in urban areas.
c. low-income individuals and families.
d. all Americans.

ANS: D
“Fruits & veggies—more matters” is part of the National Fruit and Vegetable Program, designed to increase intake of fruits and vegetables among all Americans. It is not specifically targeted at any age, demographic, or socioeconomic group.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 28-29
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

11. A meal planning guide that would be helpful for a patient who needs to closely monitor their intake of kcals, carbohydrates, protein, and fat is the
a. National Fruit and Vegetable Program.
b. MyPyramid food guidance system.
c. Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
d. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning.

ANS: D
The Exchange Lists for Meal Planning groups foods according to their kcal, carbohydrate, protein, and fat content and lists serving sizes that contain specific amounts of each of these. Therefore, this guide can help clients monitor their intake. The National Fruit and Vegetable Program simply encourages increased intake of fruits and vegetables. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans give general advice but do not translate this into specific amounts of foods. MyPyramid would help patients achieve healthy intakes of kcals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat, but would not be specific enough for them to monitor their intake closely.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 28-29
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

12. One reason that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption helps decrease dietary fat intake is because fruits and vegetables
a. are natural appetite suppressants.
b. displace high-fat foods from the diet.
c. are rich in antioxidants and phytochemicals.
d. decrease absorption of fat from foods.

ANS: B
Fruits and vegetables displace high-fat foods from the diet because they are high in fiber and water; they cause satiety so that clients have less desire for high-fat foods. Fruits and vegetables are not and do not contain natural appetite suppressants and do not hinder absorption of fat from foods. They are rich in antioxidants and phytochemicals, but increased intake of these substances does not affect fat intake.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 28
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

13. Fish consumption is increasing in the United States as a result of
a. greater availability of fresh and frozen fish.
b. increased use of fish in processed foods.
c. dietary recommendations to consume lighter-colored protein sources.
d. recognition that protein from fish is superior to other protein sources.

ANS: A
Fish consumption is increased because of the availability of frozen and refrigerated storage techniques. Use of fish in processed foods has not increased. Dietary recommendations encourage use of more poultry and fish and less red meat, but do not describe them in terms of color. Fish contains high quality protein, but it is not superior to the protein in other animal foods.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 31
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

14. If a client wants to use the food label to check the number of kcals in a product, they should also check the
a. calories from fat.
b. servings per container.
c. % Daily Value.
d. ingredient list.

ANS: B
The number of kcals in a product is stated for a standard serving size of that food. The client needs to multiply the kcals per serving by the number of servings in the container to know how many kcals it contains. The calories from fat are not related to the total number of kcals in the food. The % Daily Value describes the nutrient content of the food rather than its caloric value. The ingredient list does not give any information about kcals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: pp. 32-34
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

15. The most useful part of the food label for a client who wants to make sure they choose foods high in nutrients is the
a. % Daily Value.
b. health claims.
c. organic seal.
d. amount of nutrients per serving.

ANS: A
The % Daily Value shows how a food fits into the overall daily diet and would therefore show whether it makes a high or low contribution to nutrient intake. Health claims may indicate that a food is high or low in a specific nutrient related to that particular health claim, but would not indicate overall nutrient content of the food. The organic seal, if present, indicates the farming methods used to grow the food but does not give any information about nutrient content. The amount of nutrients per serving is only listed for some nutrients; it would not give any information about vitamins and minerals in the food because these are only listed as % Daily Values.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 32-36
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

16. If a food package has the radura symbol, showing that the food has been irradiated, a consumer can know that the food
a. should not be eaten by pregnant women.
b. will have a cooked taste and texture.
c. had to be treated to remove contaminants.
d. may have an extended shelf life.

ANS: D
Irradiation extends the shelf life of foods by destroying microorganisms, mold, and parasites. Irradiated foods are safe for pregnant women. Irradiation does not give foods a cooked taste and texture. Irradiation is used to destroy normal levels of microorganisms, mold, and parasites in foods, rather than to treat contaminated foods.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 41-43
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

17. The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label is useful for
a. determining the ingredients in a product.
b. determining the ease of preparing a product.
c. comparing the price value of two or more products.
d. comparing the nutritional value of two or more products.

ANS: D
The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label lists the quantities of specific key nutrients in the food and can therefore be used to compare the nutritional value of two or more products. The ingredients are listed elsewhere on the package, rather than in the Nutrition Facts panel. The Nutrition Facts panel does not indicate how easy the food is to prepare and does not include any information about cost or price.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 32-34
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

18. A pregnant woman may look for a health claim on food labels that links
a. sodium intake and risk of stroke.
b. calcium intake and risk of osteoporosis.
c. folic acid intake and risk of neural tube defects.
d. fruit and vegetable intake and risk of heart disease.

ANS: C
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved use of a health claim stating the relationship between folic acid intake during pregnancy and decreased risk of neural tube defects in infants. They have also approved use of a health claim stating the relationship between calcium intake and decreased risk of osteoporosis, but this is not directly relevant to a pregnant women. The other two associations are not approved for health claims on food labels.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 35-36
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

19. If a patient has cancer and is being treated using chemotherapy, their greatest food safety concern is
a. avoiding pesticide residues.
b. potential food-drug interactions.
c. choosing natural food products.
d. preventing foodborne illness.

ANS: D
Individuals undergoing chemotherapy have weakened immune systems and therefore need to be especially careful to prevent foodborne illness. Concerns about pesticide residues are no greater for cancer patients than for the rest of the population. Food-drug interactions may be a concern for specific individuals but are not related to food safety. Choosing natural food products is not necessarily beneficial and is not a particular concern for patients receiving chemotherapy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 37
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

20. Use of food preservatives and flavor enhancers and the addition of vitamins A and D to milk are examples of
a. nutritional additives.
b. artificial ingredients.
c. intentional food additives.
d. incidental food additives.

ANS: C
Use of food preservatives and flavor enhancers and addition of vitamins A and D to milk are examples of intentional food additives; they are added to improve the quality of the food in some way. Incidental food additives contaminate or inadvertently become part of the food. Vitamins A and D add nutritional value, but food preservatives and flavor enhancers are added for other beneficial reasons. The term “artificial ingredients” does not differentiate between those added intentionally and those present as contaminants or added inadvertently.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 37
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

21. An example of an incidental food additive is
a. vitamin A in nonfat milk.
b. irradiation of herbs and spices.
c. artificial color in soft drinks.
d. traces of a pesticide found in bottled apple juice.

ANS: D
Traces of pesticide found in bottled apple juice is an example of an incidental food additive; it is not added to the juice to improve its quality, but is there because the pesticides were used in growing the apples and traces contaminate the juice. Vitamin A is added to nonfat milk to improve its nutritional value and artificial color is added to soft drinks to improve their appearance; both of these are intentional food additives. Irradiation of herbs and spices is a process, not an additive.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 37
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

22. It is essential that each sector of the food chain follow correct food handling procedures in order to
a. meet nutrient guidelines.
b. have a safe food supply.
c. have tasty food products.
d. maintain an inexpensive food supply.

ANS: B
Food can become unsafe if it is mishandled at any point in the food chain between the farm and the plate; therefore correct food handling procedures protect the safety of the food supply. Food handling procedures may affect the nutrient content and taste of foods to some extent, but these effects are much less significant. Correct food handling procedures are not necessarily linked to cost of food production.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 37-40
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

23. Cutting vegetables on the same cutting board that has been used to cut up raw chicken is an example of
a. saving time and energy resources.
b. cross-contamination that could spread harmful bacteria.
c. a potential problem only if the chicken was not refrigerated.
d. a food safety problem if the vegetables and chicken are eaten at different meals.

ANS: B
This is an example of cross-contamination because bacteria in the raw chicken may contaminate the vegetables. This may save time, but could be very hazardous to health. Even refrigerated raw chicken can harbor harmful bacteria. This practice is risky, regardless of whether the foods will be eaten at the same or different meals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 40-41
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

24. An environmental benefit of some genetically engineered crops is that
a. they are easier to harvest.
b. they contain fewer common allergens.
c. they may be grown using fewer pesticides.
d. foods made from them have a longer shelf life.

ANS: C
Crops may be genetically engineered so that they produce their own natural pesticides that are harmful to insects but not to humans and animals; they therefore require use of fewer pesticides which is beneficial to the environment. Crops may also be genetically engineered to make them easier to harvest, to contain fewer common allergens, and to produce foods with a longer shelf life. However these effects would not have a direct benefit for the environment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: pp. 36-37
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

25. Consuming only well-cooked hamburgers would be most likely to help reduce the risk of foodborne illness caused by
a. Vibrio vulnificus.
b. Escherichia coli.
c. Clostridium botulinum.
d. Listeria monocytogenes.

ANS: B
Foodborne illness caused by E. coli has been linked to consumption of undercooked hamburgers and can be prevented by thorough cooking of the meat. Vibrio vulnificus causes foodborne illness due to consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially shellfish. Clostridium botulinum produces a toxin in improperly prepared home-canned foods. Listeria monocytogenes may be found in unpasteurized dairy products, sliced deli meats, smoked fish, hot dogs, and deli-prepared salads.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 39-40
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

26. If thirty patients developed foodborne illness after eating at a particular restaurant, the doctor or hospital may report the outbreak to the
a. Partnership for Food Safety Education.
b. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
c. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
d. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

ANS: D
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention keeps statistical data on foodborne illness so outbreaks would be reported to them. The Partnership for Food Safety Education educates consumers and food workers about safe food handling. USDA and FDA help ensure that food is produced using safe practices.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 37-40
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

27. A “reasonable certainty of no harm” describes
a. consumer guidelines for food safety.
b. international standards for food additives.
c. food industry standards for food production.
d. federal standards for pesticide residues in foods.

ANS: D
The “reasonable certainty of no harm” is a federal standard for pesticide residues in foods that replaces the former zero tolerance. This phrase is not used in connection with consumer guidelines for food safety, international standards for food additives, or food industry standards for food production.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: pp. 37-40
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

28. At the grocery store, one important way consumers can help prevent foodborne illness is to check the
a. ingredient list.
b. sell-by or use-by date.
c. Nutrition Facts panel.
d. type of packaging used.

ANS: B
Foodborne illness may be caused by consumption of food with expired sell-by or use-by dates; therefore consumers should check dates on food packages at the grocery store. Information included in the ingredient list and Nutrition Facts panel is not directly relevant to prevention of foodborne illness. The type of packaging used is unlikely to be a food safety concern.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 37-40
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

29. An individual would be described as having an external locus of control if they
a. write out a shopping list each week and generally only buy foods on their list.
b. try to eat mostly foods produced using organic and sustainable farming practices.
c. had decided to eat a turkey sandwich, but end up ordering pizza with friends.
d. try to influence their friends and family to help them make healthier food choices.

ANS: C
Individuals with an external locus of control do not feel they are able to control outside forces that have power over their experiences, so they may be easily influenced to eat pizza instead of a sandwich. Individuals who write and buy foods from a shopping list would be described as having an internal locus of control because they have an inner sense of their ability to guide life events. Use of organic foods and a desire to influence other people’s food choices are not related to locus of control.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 43
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial integrity

30. Eating homemade ice cream made with raw eggs increases the risk for
a. Shigella.
b. norovirus.
c. listeriosis.
d. salmonellosis.

ANS: D
Salmonellosis may occur after consumption of raw or undercooked eggs. Shigella and norovirus are associated with infected food handlers who have poor hygiene. Listeriosis is associated with consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, sliced deli meats, smoked fish, hot dogs, and deli-prepared salads.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 39
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Safe and effective care environment

 

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