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Free Test Chapter Sample:

Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Media Resources
Important Figures and Tables: Section:
Figure 2.4 Cathode-Ray Tube with Perpendicular 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Magnetic and Electric Fields
Figure 2.5 Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment to2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Measure the Charge of the Electron
Figure 2.7 Behavior of Alpha (), Beta () and 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Gamma() Rays in an Electric Field
Figure 2.9 Rutherford’s -Scattering Experiment 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Figure 2.10 The Structure of the Atom 2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
Figure 2.11 A Mass Spectrometer 2.4 Atomic Weights
Figure 2.14 Periodic Table of Elements 2.5 The Periodic Table
Figure 2.18 Predictable Charges of Some Common 2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds
Ions
Figure 2.19 Formation of an Ionic Compound 2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds
Figure 2.20 Elements Essential to Life 2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds
Figure 2.22 Procedure for Naming Anions 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Figure 2.24 How Anion Names and AcidNames 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Relate
Animations: Section:
Multiple Proportions 2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter
Millikan Oil Drop Experiment 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Rutherford Experiment: Nuclear Atom 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Activities: Section:
Law of Multiple Proportions 2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter
Separation of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Isotopes of Hydrogen 2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
Mass Spectrometer 2.4 Atomic Weights
Periodic Table 2.5 The Periodic Table
Representations of Methane 2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds
Naming Cations 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Naming Anions 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Polyatomic Ions 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Ionic Compounds 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
3-D Models: Section:
Methane 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
Ethane 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
Propane 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
Methanol 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
Ethanol 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
1-Propanol 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
2-Propanol 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
16
VCL Simulations: Section:
Thompson Cathode-Ray Experiment 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Millikan Oil Drop Experiment 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Rutherford’s Backscattering Experiment 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Other Resources
Further Readings: Section:
Analogical Demonstration 2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter
A Millikan Oil Drop Analogy 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Marie Curie’s Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Nobel Prize
Bowling Balls and Beads: A Concrete Analogy 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
to the Rutherford Experiment
The Discovery of the Electron, Proton, and 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Neutron
The Curie-Becquerel Story 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Isotope Separation 2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
The Origin of Isotope Symbolism 2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
Relative Atomic Mass and the Mole: A Concrete 2.4 Atomic Weights
Analogy to Help Students Understand These
Abstract Concepts
Revising Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass 2.4 Atomic Weights
Number: Organizing, Integrating, and
Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts
Using Monetary Analogies to Teach Average 2.4 Atomic Weights
Atomic Mass
Pictorial Analogies IV: Relative Atomic Weights 2.4 Atomic Weights
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses 2.4 Atomic Weights
Periodic Tables of Elemental Abundance 2.5 The Periodic Table
A Second Note on the Term “Chalcogen” 2.5 The Periodic Table
The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic 2.5 The Periodic Table
Table
An Educational Card Game for Learning Families 2.5 The Periodic Table
of Chemical Elements
The Periodic Table: Key to Past “Elemental” 2.5 The Periodic Table
Discoveries—A New Role in the Future?
Teaching Inorganic Nomenclature: A Systematic 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Approach
Nomenclature Made Practical: Student Discovery 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
of the Nomenclature
ChemOkey: A Game to Reinforce Nomenclature 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Flow Chart for Naming Inorganic Compounds 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Using Games to Teach Chemistry: An Annotated 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Bibliography
A Mnemonic for Oxy-Anions 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
The Proper Writing of Ionic Charges 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
17
Live Demonstrations: Section:
Turning Plastic into Gold: An Analogy to2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
Demonstrate Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment
Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink 2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
Chapter 2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
18
Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Common Student Misconceptions
• Students have problems with the concept of amu.
• Students often think that mass number and atomic number can be used interchangeably.
• Students think that the term isotopeis synonymous with being a harmful, radioactive substance.
• Beginning students often do not see the difference between empirical and molecular formulas.
• Students think that polyatomic ions can easily dissociate into smaller ions.
• Students often fail to recognize the importance of the periodic table as a tool for organizing and
remembering chemical facts.
• Students often cannot relate the charges on common monoatomic ions to their position in the periodic
table.
• Students often do not realize that an ionic compound canconsist of nonmetals only, e.g., (NH4)2SO4.
• Students often confuse the guidelines for naming ionic compounds with those for naming binary
molecular compounds.
• Students routinely underestimate the importance of this chapter.
Teaching Tips
• It is critical that students learn the names and formulas of common and polyatomic ions as soon as
possible. They sometimes need to be told that this information will be used throughout their careers
as chemists (even if that career is only one semester).
• Remind students that familiesor groupsare the columns in the periodic table; periodsare the rows.
• Emphasize to students that the subscripts in the molecular formula of a substance are always an
integral multiple of the subscripts in the empirical formula of that substance.
Lecture Outline
2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter
1,2,3
• Greek Philosophers: Can matter be subdivided into fundamental particles?
• Democritus (460–370 BC): All matter can be divided into indivisible atomos.
• Dalton: proposed atomic theory with the following postulates:
• Elements are composed of atoms.
• All atoms of an element are identical.
• In chemical reactions atoms are not changed into different types of atoms. Atoms are neither
created nor destroyed.
• Compounds are formed when atoms of elements combine.
• Atomsare the building blocks of matter.
• Law of constant composition: The relative kinds and numbers of atoms are constant for a given
compound.
• Law of conservation of mass (matter): During a chemical reaction, the total mass before the reaction
is equal to the total mass after the reaction.
1
“Analogical Demonstration” from Further Readings
2
“Law of Multiple Proportions” Activityfrom Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
3
“Multiple Proportions” Animation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
19
• Conservation means something can neither be created nor destroyed. Here, it applies to matter
(mass). Later we will apply it to energy (Chapter 5).
• Law of multiple proportions: If two elements, A and B, combine to form more than one compound,
then the mass of B, which combines with the mass of A, is a ratio of small whole numbers.
• Dalton’s theory predictedthe law of multiple proportions.
FUTURE REFERENCES
• The law of conservation of mass (matter) falls under the First Law of Thermodynamics discussed
in Chapter 5.
2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure
• By 1850 scientists knew that atoms consisted of charged particles.
• Subatomic particlesare those particles that make up the atom.
• Recall the law of electrostatic attraction: like charges repel and opposite charges attract.
Cathode Rays and Electrons
4,5,6,7,8,9,10
• Cathode rays were first discovered in the mid-1800s from studies of electrical discharge through
partially evacuated tubes (cathode-ray tubes or CRTs).
• Computer terminals were once popularly referred to as CRTs (cathode-ray tubes).
• Cathode rays = radiation produced whenhigh voltage is applied across the tube.
• The voltage causes negative particles to move from the negative electrode (cathode) to the positive
electrode (anode).
• The path of the electrons can be altered by the presence of a magnetic field.
• Consider cathode rays leaving the positive electrode through a small hole.
• If they interact with a magnetic field perpendicular to an applied electric field, then the cathode
rays can be deflected by different amounts.
• The amount of deflection of the cathode rays depends on the applied magnetic and electric fields.
• In turn, the amount of deflection also depends on the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron.
• In 1897 Thomson determined the charge-to-mass ratio of an electron.
• Charge-to-mass ratio: 1.76 10
8
C/g.
• C is a symbol for coulomb.
• It is the SI unit for electric charge.
• Millikan Oil Drop Experiment (1909)
• Goal: find the charge on the electron to determine its mass.
• Oil drops are sprayed above a positively charged plate containing a small hole.
• As the oil drops fall through the hole they acquire a negative charge.
• Gravity forces the drops downward. The applied electric field forces the drops upward.
• When a drop is perfectly balanced, then the weight of the drop is equal to the electrostatic force
of attraction between the drop and the positive plate.
• Millikan carried out the above experiment and determined the charges on the oil drops to be
multiples of 1.60 10
–19
C.
• He concluded the charge on the electron must be 1.60 10
–19
C.
4
Figure 2.4
5
“Thompson Cathode-Ray Experiment” VCL Simulation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
6
“A Millikan Oil Drop Analogy” from Further Readings
7
“Millikan Oil Drop Experiment” Animation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
8
“Marie Curie’s Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a Nobel Prize” from Further Readings
9
“Millikan Oil Drop Experiment” VCL Simulation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
10
Figure 2.5
Chapter 2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
20
• Knowing the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron, we can calculate the mass of the electron:
g 109.10
C/g 101.76
C 101.60
Mass
28
8
19


 


Radioactivity
11
• Radioactivityis the spontaneous emission of radiation.
• Consider the following experiment:
• A radioactive substance is placed in a lead shield containing a small hole so that a beam of
radiation is emitted from the shield.
• The radiation is passed between two electrically charged plates and detected.
• Three spots are observed on the detector:
1. a spot deflected in the direction of the positive plate,
2. a spot that is not affected by the electric field, and
3. a spot deflected in the direction of the negative plate.
• A large deflection towards the positive plate corresponds to radiation that is negatively charged
and of low mass. This is called -radiation (consists of electrons).
• No deflection corresponds to neutral radiation. This is called -radiation (similar to X-rays).
• A small deflection toward the negatively charged plate corresponds to high mass, positively
charged radiation. This is called -radiation (positively charged core of a helium atom.)
• X-rays and radiation are true electromagnetic radiation, whereas - and -radiation are
actually streams of particles—helium nuclei and electrons, respectively.
The Nuclear Atom
12,13,14,15,16,17,18
• The plum pudding model is an early picture of the atom.
• The Thomson model pictures the atom as a spherewith small electrons embedded in a positively
charged mass.
• Rutherford carried out the following “gold foil” experiment:
• A source of -particles was placed at the mouth of a circular detector.
• The -particles were shot through a piece of gold foil.
• Both the gold nucleus and the -particle were positively charged, so they repelled each other.
• Most of the -particles went straight through the foil without deflection.
• If the Thomson model of the atom was correct, then Rutherford’s result was impossible.
• Rutherford modified Thomson’s model as follows:
• Assume the atom is spherical, but the positive charge must be located at the center with a diffuse
negative charge surrounding it.
• In order for the majority of -particles that pass through a piece of foil to be undeflected, the
majority of the atom must consist of a low mass, diffuse negative charge—the electron.
• To account for the small number of large deflections of the -particles, the center or nucleusof
the atom must consist of a dense positive charge.
FUTURE REFERENCES
• Radioactivity will be further discussed in Chapter 21.
11
“The Curie-Becquerel Story” from Further Readings
12
Figure 2.7
13
“Separation of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
14
“Bowling Balls and Beads: A Concrete Analogy to the Rutherford Experiment” from Further Readings
15
“Rutherford Experiment: Nuclear Atom” Animation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
16
Figure 2.9
17
“Rutherford’s Backscattering Experiment” VCL Simulation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
18
“Turning Plastic into Gold” from Live Demonstrations
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
21
2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure
19,20
• The atom consists of positive, negative and neutral entities (protons, electronsand neutrons).
• Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, which is small. Most of the mass of the
atom is due to the nucleus.
• Electrons are located outside of the nucleus. Most of the volume of the atom is due to electrons.
• The quantity 1.602 10
–19
C is called the electronic charge.
• The charge on an electron is –1.602 10
–19
C; the charge on a proton is +1.602 10
–19
C;
neutrons are uncharged.
• Atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons, thus they have no net electrical charge.
• Masses are so small that we define the atomic mass unit, amu.
• 1 amu = 1.66054 10
–24
g.
• The mass of a proton is 1.0073 amu, a neutron is 1.0087 amu, and an electron is 5.486 10
–4
amu.
• The angstromis a convenient non-SI unit of length used to denote atomic dimensions.
• Since most atoms have radii around 1 10
–10
m, we define 1 Å = 1 10
–10
m.
Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, And Isotopes
21,22,23,24,25
• Atomic number(Z) = number of protons in the nucleus.
• Mass number(A) = total number of nucleons in the nucleus (i.e., protons and neutrons).
Z
A
• By convention, for element X, we write . X
• Thus, isotopes have the same Z but different A.
• There can be a variable number of neutronsfor the same number of protons. Isotopes have
the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
• All atoms of a specific element have the same number of protons.
• Isotopesof a specific element differ in the number of neutrons.
FUTURE REFERENCES
• The concept of an isotope (specifically
12
C) will be useful when defining the mole in Chapter 3.
• Since the atomic number signifies the number of electrons in an atom, it will be commonly used
to write electron configurations of atoms (Chapter 6), draw Lewis structures (Chapter 8) and
understand molecular orbitals (Chapter 9).
• Radioactive decay will be further discussed in Chapter 14 as an example of first-order kinetics.
• Atomic structure ideas developed in section 2.3 will be applied to the understanding of nuclear
reactions in Chapter 21.
19
“The Discovery of the Electron, Proton, and Neutron” from Further Readings
20
Figure 2.10
21
“The Origin of Isotope Symbolism” from Further Readings
22
“Isotope Separation” from Further Readings
23
“Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink” from Live Demonstrations
24
“Element Symbology” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
25
“Isotopes of Hydrogen” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
Chapter 2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
22
2.4 Atomic Weights
The Atomic Mass Scale
26,27
• Consider 100 g of water:
• Upon decomposition 11.1 g of hydrogenand 88.9 g of oxygen are produced.
• The mass ratio of O to H in water is 88.9/11.1 = 8.
• Therefore, the mass of O is 2 8 = 16 times the mass of H.
• If H has a mass of 1, then O has a relative massof 16.
• We can measure atomic masses using a mass spectrometer.
• We know
1
H has a mass of 1.6735 10
–24
g and
16
O has a mass of 2.6560 10
–23
g.
• Atomic mass units(amu) are convenient units to use when dealing with extremely small masses
of individual atoms.
• 1 amu = 1.66054 10
–24
g and 1 g = 6.02214 10
23
amu
• By definition, the mass of
12
C is exactly 12 amu.
Average Atomic Masses
28,29
• We average the masses of isotopes to give average atomic masses.
• Naturally occurring C consists of 98.93%
12
C (12 amu) and 1.07%
13
C (13.00335 amu).
• The average mass of C is:
• (0.9893)(12 amu) + (0.0107)(13.00335 amu) = 12.01 amu.
• Atomic weight(AW) is also known as average atomic mass.
• Atomic weightsare listed on the periodic table.
The Mass Spectrometer
30,31,32
• A mass spectrometeris an instrument that allows for direct and accurate determination of atomic
(and molecular) weights.
• The sample is charged as soon as it enters the spectrometer.
• The charged sample is accelerated using an applied voltage.
• The ions are then passed into an evacuated tube and through a magnetic field.
• The magnetic field causes the ions to be deflectedby different amounts depending on their mass.
• The ions are then detected.
• A graph of signal intensity vs. mass of the ion is called a mass spectrum.
FUTURE REFERENCES
• Being able to locate atomic weights on the periodic table will be crucial in calculating molar
masses in Chapter 3 and beyond.
26
“Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating, and Sequencing
Fundamental Chemical Concepts” from Further Readings
27
“Relative Atomic Mass and the Mole: A Concrete Analogy to Help Students Understand These
Abstract Concepts” from Further Readings
28
“Using Monetary Analogies to Teach Average Atomic Mass” from Further Readings
29
“Pictorial Analogies IV: Relative Atomic Weights” from Further Readings
30
“Mass Spectrometer” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
31
“Mass Spectrometry for the Masses” from Further Readings
32
Figure 2.11
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
23
2.5 The Periodic Table
33,34,35,36,37,38,39
• Theperiodic tableis used to organize the elements in a meaningful way.
• As a consequence of this organization, there are periodic properties associated with the periodic table.
• Rows in the periodic table are called periods.
• Columns in the periodic table are called groups.
• Several numbering conventions are used (i.e., groups may be numbered from 1 to 18, or from 1A
to 8A and 1B to 8B).
• Some of the groups in the periodic table are given special names.
• These names indicate the similarities between group members.
• Examples:
• Group 1A: alkali metals
• Group 2A: alkaline earth metals
• Group 7A: halogens
• Group 8A: noble gases
• Metallic elements, or metals, are located on the left-hand side of the periodic table (most of the
elements are metals).
• Metals tend to be malleable, ductile, and lustrous and are good thermal and electrical conductors.
• Nonmetallic elements, or nonmetals, are located in the top right-hand side of the periodic table.
• Nonmetals tend to be brittle as solids, dull in appearance, and do not conduct heat or electricity
well.
• Elements with properties similar to both metals and nonmetals are called metalloidsand are located
at the interface between the metals and nonmetals.
• These include the elements B, Si, Ge, As, Sb and Te.
FORWARD REFERENCES
• Additional information that can be associated with the unique location of an element in the
periodic table will be covered in Chapter 6 (electron configurations), Chapter 7 (periodic
properties), Chapter 8 (tendency to form ionic or covalent bonds) and Chapter 16 (relative acid
strength).
2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds
• A moleculeconsists of two or more atoms bound tightly together.
Molecules and Chemical Formulas
• Each molecule has a chemical formula.
• The chemical formula indicates
1. which atoms are found in the molecule, and
2. in what proportion they are found.
• A molecule made up of two atoms is called a diatomic molecule.
• Different forms of an element, which have different chemical formulas, are known as allotropes.
• Allotropes differ in their chemical and physical properties.
33
“Periodic Tables of Elemental Abundance” from Further Readings
34
Figure 2.14
35
“Periodic Table” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
36
“A Second Note on the Term ‘Chalcogen’” from Further Readings
37
“The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table” from Further Readings
38
“The Periodic Table: Key to Past ‘Elemental’ Discoveries—A New Role in the Future?” from Further
Readings
39
“An Educational Card Game for Learning Families of Chemical Elements” from Further Readings
Chapter 2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
24
• Examples: ozone (O3) and “normal” oxygen (O2)
• Compounds composed of molecules are molecular compounds.
• These contain at least two types of atoms.
• Most molecular substances contain only nonmetals.
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
• Molecular formulas
• These formulas give the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule.
• Examples: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, H2O2, O2, O3, and C2H4.
• Empirical formulas
• These formulas give the relative numbers and types of atoms in a molecule (they give the lowest
whole-number ratio of atoms in a molecule).
• Examples: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, HO, CH2.
Picturing Molecules
40
• Molecules occupy three-dimensional space.
• However, we often represent them in two dimensions.
• The structural formulagives the connectivity between individual atoms in the molecule.
• The structural formula may or may not be used toshow the three-dimensional shape of the molecule.
• If the structural formula does show the shape of the molecule, then either a perspective drawing, a
ball-and-stick model, or a space-filling model is used.
• Perspective drawingsuse dashed lines and wedges to represent bonds receding and emerging
from the plane of the paper.
• Ball-and-stick modelsshow atoms as contracted spheres and the bonds as sticks.
• The angles in the ball-and-stick model are accurate.
• Space-filling modelsgive an accurate representation of the 3-D shape of the molecule.
FORWARD REFERENCES
• More detailed discussion of bonding in molecules and molecular shapes will take place in
Chapters 8 and 9, respectively.
2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds
• If electrons are added to or removed from a neutral atom, an ionis formed.
• When an atom or molecule loses electrons it becomes positively charged.
• Positively charged ions are called cations.
• When an atom or molecule gains electrons it becomes negatively charged.
• Negatively charged ions are called anions.
• In general, metal atoms tend to lose electrons and nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons.
• When molecules lose electrons, polyatomic ionsare formed (e.g., SO4
2–
, NH4
+
).
Predicting Ionic Charges
41
• An atom or molecule can lose more than one electron.
• Many atoms gain or lose enough electrons to havethe same number of electrons as the nearest noble
gas (group 8A).
• The number of electrons an atom loses is related to its position on the periodic table.
• Anions can also be viewed as particles originating from acids, and therefore, having negative charges
equal to the number of (acidic) hydrogen atoms in molecules of those acids (e.g., HNO3has 1 H
atom,hence NO3

has a charge of 1).
40
“Representations of Methane” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
41
Figure 2.18
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
25
Ionic Compounds
42
• A great deal of chemistry involves the transfer of electrons between species.
• Example:
• To form NaCl, the neutral sodium atom, Na, must lose an electron to become a cation: Na
+
.
• The electron cannot be lost entirely, so it is transferred to a chlorine atom, Cl, which then
becomes an anion: Cl

.
• The Na
+
and Cl

ions are attracted to form an ionic NaCl lattice, which crystallizes.
• NaCl is an example of an ionic compoundconsisting of positively charged cations and negatively
charged anions.
• Important: note that there are no easily identified NaCl molecules in the ionic lattice. Therefore,
we cannot use molecular formulas to describe ionic substances.
• In general, ionic compounds are combinationsof metals and nonmetals, whereas molecular
compounds are composed of nonmetals only.
• There are exceptions; notably (NH4)2SO4and other ammonium salts are ionic.
• Writing empirical formulas for ionic compounds:
• You need to know the ions of which it is composed.
• The formula must reflect the electrical neutrality of the compound.
• You must combine cations and anions in a ratio so that the total positive charge is equal to the
total negative charge.
• Example: Consider the formation of Mg3N2:
• Mg loses two electrons to become Mg
2+
.
• Nitrogen gains three electrons to become N
3–
.
• For a neutral species, the number of electrons lost and gained must be equal.
• However, Mg can only lose electrons in twos, and N can only accept electrons in threes.
• Therefore, Mg needs to lose six electrons (23) and N gains those six electrons (32).
• That is, 3 Mg atoms need to form 3 Mg
2+
ions (total 32 positive charges) and 2N atoms need
to form 2N
3–
ions (total 23 negative charges).
• Therefore, the formula is Mg3N2.
Chemistry and Life: Elements Required by Living Organisms
43
• Of the known elements, only about 29 are required for life.
• Water accounts for at least 70% of the mass of most cells.
• More than 97% of the mass of most organisms comprises just six elements (O, C, H, N, P and S).
• Carbon is the most common element in the solid components of cells.
• The most important elements for life are H, C, N, O, P and S (red).
• The next most important ions are Na
+
, Mg
2+
, K
+
, Ca
2+
, and Cl

(blue).
• The other required 18 elements are only needed in trace amounts (green); they are trace elements.
FORWARD REFERENCES
• Formulas (including correct charges) of ions will be important in writing metathesis and net
ionic equations in Chapter 4 (sections 4.2–4.3).
• Periodic trends in ionization energy (in gas phase) as well as ionic radii (in crystals) will be
covered in Chapter 7.
• The nature of bonding between ions and charges of most monoatomic ions will be rationalized in
terms of electron configurations in Chapter 8 (section 8.2).
• Common types of ionic structures will be discussed in Chapter 11.
• Qualitatively, solubility of ionic solids will be covered in Chapter 4 (section 4.2) and
quantitatively in Chapter 17 (section 17.4).
42
Figure 2.19
43
Figure 2.20
Chapter 2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
26
• The fate of ionic solids when dissolved in water will be brieflydiscussed in Chapter 4 (section
4.1) and elaborated on in Chapter 13 (section 13.1); ion-dipole forces will be explained in
Chapter 11 (section 11.2).
• The loss of electrons to form monoatomic metal cations (oxidation) and the gain of electrons to
form monoatomic nonmetal anions (reduction) will be further discussed in Chapter 4 (section
4.4).
• Atoms of the same element appearing in severaldifferent ions (as well as molecules), and hence,
having different oxidation numbers will be the basis of redox reactions in Chapter 20.
• The role of metal cations in the formation ofmetal complexes will be discussed in Chapter 23.
2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds
44,45,46,47,48
• Chemical nomenclatureis the naming of substances.
• Common names are traditional names for substances (e.g., water, ammonia).
• Systematic names are based on a systematic set of rules.
• Divided into organic compounds (those containing C, usually in combination with H, O, N, or S)
and inorganic compounds (all other compounds).
Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
49,50,51
1. Positive Ions (Cations)
• Cations formed from a metal have the same name as the metal.
• Example: Na
+
= sodium ion.
• Ions formed from a single atom are called monoatomic ions.
• Many transition metals exhibit variable charge.
• If the metal can form more than one cation, then the charge is indicated in parentheses in the
name.
• Examples: Cu
+
= copper(I) ion; Cu
2+
= copper(II) ion.
• An alternative nomenclature method uses the endings -ousand -icto represent the lower and
higher charged ions, respectively.
• Examples: Cu
+
= cuprous ion; Cu
2+
= cupric ion.
• Cations formed from nonmetals end in -ium.
• Examples: NH4
+
= ammonium ion; H3O
+
= hydronium ion.
2. Negative Ions (Anions)
52,53,54
• Monatomic anions (with only one atom) use the ending -ide.
• Example: Cl

is the chloride ion.
• Some polyatomic anions also use the -ide ending:
• Examples: hydroxide, cyanide, and peroxide ions.
• Polyatomic anions (with many atoms) containing oxygen are called oxyanions.
44
“Teaching Inorganic Nomenclature: A Systematic Approach” from Further Readings
45
“Nomenclature Made Practical; Student Discovery ofthe Nomenclature Rules” from Further Readings
46
“Flow Chart for Naming Inorganic Compounds” from Further Readings
47
“Using Games to Teach Chemistry: An Annotated Bibliography” from Further Readings
48
“ChemOkey: A Game to Reinforce Nomenclature” from Further Readings
49
“Naming Cations” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
50
“Naming Anions” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
51
“The Proper Writing of Ionic Charges” from Further Readings
52
“Polyatomic Ions” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
53
“A Mnemonic for Oxy-Anions” from Further Readings
54
Figure 2.22
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
27
• Their names end in -ateor-ite. (The one with more oxygen is called -ate.)
• Examples: NO3

is nitrate; NO2

is nitrite.
• Polyatomic anions containing oxygen with more than two members in the series are named as follows
(in order of decreasing oxygen):
• per-…-ate example: ClO4

perchlorate
• -ate ClO3

chlorate
• -ite ClO2

chlorite
• hypo-….-ite ClO

hypochlorite
• Polyatomic anions containing oxygen with additional hydrogens are named by adding hydrogen or bi-
(one H), dihydrogen (two H) etc., to the name as follows:
• CO3
2–
is the carbonateanion.
• HCO3

is the hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) anion.
• PO4
3–
is the phosphate ion.
• H2PO4

is the dihydrogenphosphate anion.
3. Ionic Compounds
55,56
• These are named by the cation then the anion.
• Examples:
• CaCl2= calcium chloride
• (NH4)3PO4= ammonium phosphate
• KClO4= potassium perchlorate
Names and Formulas of Acids
57
• Acids are substances that yield hydrogen ions when dissolved in water (Arrhenius definition).
• The names of acids are related to the names of anions:
• -idebecomes hydro-….-icacid; example: HCl hydrochloricacid
• -atebecomes -icacid; HClO4perchloricacid
• -itebecomes -ousacid. HClO hypochlorousacid
Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds
• Binarymolecular compounds have two elements.
• The most metallic element (i.e., the one furthest tothe left on the periodic table) is usually written
first. The exception is NH3.
• If both elements are in the same group, the lower one is written first.
• Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms (e.g., mono, di, tri).
• The prefix mono is never used with the first element (i.e., carbon monoxide, CO).
• Examples:
• Cl2O is dichlorine monoxide.
• N2O4is dinitrogen tetroxide.
• NF3is nitrogen trifluoride.
• P4S10is tetraphosphorus decasulfide.
FORWARD REFERENCES
• Nomenclature will be required throughout the textbook.
• Acids will be mentioned again in Chapter 4 and further discussed in Chapters 16 and 17.
55
“Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds” VCL Simulation from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
56
“Ionic Compounds” Activity from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
57
Figure 2.24
Chapter 2
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28
2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds
• Organic chemistryis the study of carbon-containing compounds.
• Organic compoundsare those that contain carbon and hydrogen, often in combination with other
elements.
Alkanes
58,59,60
• Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
• In alkaneseach carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms.
• The names of alkanes end in -ane.
• Examples: methane, ethane, propane, butane.
Some Derivatives of Alkanes
61,62,63,64
• When functional groups, specific groups of atoms, are used to replace hydrogen atoms on alkanes,
new classes of organic compounds are obtained.
• Alcoholsare obtained by replacing a hydrogen atom of an alkane with an –OH group.
• Alcohol names derive from the name of the alkane and have an -olending.
• Examples: methane becomes methanol; ethane becomes ethanol.
• Carbon atoms often form compounds with long chains of carbon atoms.
• Properties of alkanes and derivatives change with changes in chain length.
• Polyethylene, a material used to make many plastic products, is an alkane with thousands of
carbons.
• This is an example of a polymer.
• Carbon may form multiple bondsto itself or other atoms.
FORWARD REFERENCES
• Simple organic compounds will be used throughoutthe textbook to illustrate: weak acid behavior
(e.g., acetic acid in Chapters 16 and 17), weak base behavior (e.g., amines in Chapters 16 and 17),
resonance (e.g., benzene in Chapter 9), molecular polarity (e.g., CH3Cl vs. CCl4in Chapter 9),
solubility of organic compounds in water or organic solvents (e.g., pentane in Chapter 13), to mention
just a few.
• Non-polar organic compounds will be mentioned again when discussing London dispersion forces in
Chapter 11.
• This section introduces organic chemistry, which will be elaborated on in Chapter 24.
58
“Methane” 3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
59
“Ethane”3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
60
“Propane” 3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
61
“Methanol” 3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
62
“Ethanol” 3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
63
“1-Propanol” 3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
64
“2-Propanol” 3-D Model from Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
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29
Further Readings:
1. John J. Fortman, “Analogical Demonstration,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 69, 1992, 323–324. This reference
includes demonstrations of the concepts of the conservation of mass in chemical reactions, the Law of
Multiple Proportions, etc.
2. Doris Eckey, “A Millikan Oil Drop Analogy,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 73, 1996, 237–238.
3. Robert L. Wolke, “Marie Curie’s Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a Nobel Prize,”J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 65,
1988, 561–573.
4. Mary V. Lorenz, “Bowling Balls and Beads: A Concrete Analogy to the Rutherford Experiment,” J.
Chem. Educ., Vol. 65, 1988, 1082.
5. Barrie M. Peake, “The Discovery of the Electron, Proton, and Neutron,”J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 66, 1989,
738.
6. Harold F. Walton, “The Curie-Becquerel Story,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 69, 1992, 10–15.
7. William Spindel and Takanobu Ishida, “Isotope Separation,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 68, 1991, 312–318.
An article describing methods used to isolate important isotopes.
8. William B. Jensen, “The Origin of Isotope Symbolism,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 88, 2011, 22–23.
9. Stephen DeMeo, “Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating,
and Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 83, 2006, 617–620.
10. Josefina Arce de Sanabia, “Relative Atomic Mass and the Mole: A Concrete Analogy to Help
Students Understand These Abstract Concepts,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 70, 1993, 233–234.
11. Arthur M. Last and Michael J. Webb, “Using Monetary Analogies to Teach Average Atomic Mass,” J.
Chem. Educ., Vol. 70, 1993, 234–235.
12. John H. Fortman, “Pictorial Analogies IV: Relative Atomic Weights,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 70, 1993,
235–236.
13. Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops and Michael J. Samide, “Mass Spectrometry for the Masses,”
J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 81, 2004, 1169–1171.
14. Steven I. Dutch, “Periodic Tables of Elemental Abundance,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 76,1999, 356–358.
15. Werner Fischer, “A Second Note on the Term ‘Chalcogen’,” J. Chem. Educ.,Vol. 78, 2001, 1333.
16. Antonio Joaquin Franco Mariscal, Jose Maria Olivia Martinez, and Serafin Bernal Marquez, “An
Educational Card Game for Learning Families of Chemical Elements,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 89, 2012,
1044–1046.
17. Marshall W. Cronyn, “The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol.
80, 2003, 947–950.
Chapter 2
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30
18. Darleane C. Hoffman, “The Periodic Table: Key to Past ‘Elemental’ Discoveries—A New Role in the
Future?”, J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 86, 2009, 1122–1128.
19. Gerhard Lind, “Teaching Inorganic Nomenclature: A Systematic Approach,”J. Chem. Educ., Vol.
69, 1992, 613–614.
20. Michael C. Wirtz, Joan Kaufmann, and Gary Hawley, “Nomenclature Made Practical: Student
Discovery of the Nomenclature Rules,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 83, 2006, 595–598.
21. Nusret Kavak, “ChemOkey: A Game to Reinforce Nomenclature,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 89, 2012,
1047–1049.
22. William B. Jensen, “The Proper Writing of Ionic Charges,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 89, 2012, 1084–
1085.
23. Steven J. Hawkes, “A Mnemonic for Oxy-Anions,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 67, 1990, 149.
24. David Robson, “Flow Chart for Naming Inorganic Compounds,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 60, 1983,
131–132.
25. Jeanne V. Russell, “Using Games to Teach Chemistry. An Annotated Bibliography,” J. Chem.
Educ., Vol. 76, 1999, 481–484. This is the first article in a special issue that contains many articles
describing games and puzzles that may be used to teach chemistry.
Live Demonstrations:
1. Arthur B. Ellis, Edward A. Adler, and Frederick H. Juergens, “Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice
Cubes Sink,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol. 67, 1990, 159–160. Differences in density of H
2
O(l) and D
2
O(s) are
used to demonstrate the effects of isotopic substitution.
2. Robert B. Gregory and Ed Vitz, “Turning Plastic into Gold: An Analogy To Demonstrate the
Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol 84, 2007, 626–628.

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